Michael C Plewa
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is generally a benign condition, yet it is also an important contributing risk factor for arrhythmias, endocarditis, stroke, mitral regurgitation (MR), mitral valve replacement (MVR) surgery, and sudden death. Although now considered to be much less common in the general population than previously described, MVP is associated with a multitude of other medical conditions, especially connective tissue disorders, as well as migraine (especially migraine with aura), autoimmune disease, open-angle glaucoma, straight back syndrome, and idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
MVP likely progresses over time, beginning in some instances with “nondiagnostic MVP morphology” (NDM) on echocardiography, and occasionally progressing to MR over decades. Many individuals are asymptomatic, although palpitations, fatigue, and orthostasis are not uncommon, especially when the patient is volume depleted. Symptoms of chest pain, dyspnea, anxiety, and panic are probably no more common with MVP than in the general population.